洛克菲勒慈善咨询机构专栏 “Theory of the Foundation” 提供了一份 The Philanthropy Framework(慈善框架,原文为英文,本站下载),包括有:

  • Charter, the organization’s scope, form of governance and decision-making protocol.
  • Social compact, its implicit or explicit agreement with society about the value it will create.
  • Operating model, the approach to the resources, structures and systems needed to implement strategy.


  • 机构的工作范围(大小)、治理形式和决策协议/定式
  • 社会影响
  • 运行模式,在资源、结构和系统上所需要的实施策略


在 Philanthropy Roadmap 栏目中,洛克菲勒慈善咨询机构给出了23个指南(均为英文),分别是:

  • Assessing Impact 影响力评估 (pdf
  • Collaborative Giving 协作赠予(捐赠)(pdf)
  • Diversity, Inclusion and Effective Philanthropy 多元化、包容的和有效的慈善 (pdf)
  • Finding Your Focus in Philanthropy 在慈善中找出你的关注领域 (pdf
  • Funding Locally 本地筹资 (pdf)
  • Giving as a Couple 以夫妇的名义捐赠 (pdf
  • Giving in Challenging Times 在艰难时世的捐赠 (pdf)
  • Giving Strategically After Disaster: Ten Points to Consider 灾后的战略性捐赠:请注意这十点 (pdf)
  • Impact Investing: An Introduction 影响力投资介绍(pdf)
  • Impact Investing: Strategy and Action 影响力投资:策略和行动(pdf)
  • Investing in Leadership 领导力投资 (pdf)
  • Launching Your Own Major Project 发布你的主要项目 (pdf)
  • Major Gifts and Naming Opportunities: When Giving Becomes Leading 当捐赠成为引导 (pdf)
  • Making Change Happen: Creating an Outcome-Based Strategy 让改变发生:建立以产出为导向的策略 (全文
  • Next Gen Philanthropy: Finding the Path Between Tradition and Innovation 下一代慈善:在传统和创新之间找寻出路 (全文
  • Operating for Impact: Choosing a Giving Vehicle 影响力运营:选择一种捐赠模式 (pdf)
  • Setting a Time Horizon 为捐赠设立评估标准和准则 (pdf)
  • Supporting Social Entrepreneurship 支持社会企业 (pdf)
  • Talking to Your Family About Philanthropy 将慈善带到家族中去 (pdf)
  • The Giving Commitment: Knowing Your Motivation 捐赠的承诺:理解你的动机 (pdf)
  • The Rockefellers: A Legacy of Giving 洛克菲勒家族:赠予的传统 (pdf)
  • Women and Giving 女性和捐赠 (pdf)
  • Your Philanthropy Roadmap 你的慈善路线图 (pdf)



选自: Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge,《组织行为学》

终极价值观 工具价值观
舒适的生活 (富足的生活) 雄心勃勃(辛勤工作、奋发向上)
振奋的生活(刺激的、积极的生活) 心胸开阔 (开放)
成就感(持续的贡献) 能干(有能力、有效率)
和平的世界(没有冲突和战争) 欢乐(轻松愉快)
美丽的世界(艺术和自然的美) 清洁(卫生,整洁)
平等(兄弟情谊,机会均等) 勇敢(坚持自己的信仰)
家庭安全(照顾自己所爱的人) 宽容(谅解他人)
自由(独立、自主的选择) 助人为乐(为他人的福利工作)
幸福(满足) 正直(真挚、诚实)
内在和谐(没有内心冲突) 富于想象(大胆、有创造性)
熟悉的爱 (性和精神上的亲密) 独立(自力更生、自给自足)
国家的安全(免遭攻击) 智慧(有知识,善思考)
快乐(快乐的、休闲的生活) 符合逻辑(理性的)
救世(救世的、永恒的生活) 博爱(温情的、温柔的)
自尊(自重) 顺从(有责任感、尊重的)
社会承认(尊重、赞赏) 礼貌(有礼的、性情好)
真挚的友谊(亲密关系) 负责(可靠的)
睿智(对生活有成熟的理解) 自我控制(自律的、约束的)


  1. 按照自己认为的重要程度,每个人分别从终极价值观和工具价值观中排出前5 个选项。
  2. 比较并讨论共识最多的选项,各自对它的理解。


本评估工具来自于德鲁克基金会(Drucker Foundation)。在这个工具中,使命的对应意思是:Mission。

原英文PDF文件:Drucker Foundation Self-Assessment Tool

How to Develop a Mission Statement

Changing the mission -- or creating an organization's first mission statement -is a process of gathering ideas and suggestions for the mission and honing them into a short, sharply focused phrase that meets specific criteria. Peter Drucker says the mission should "fit on a T-shirt," yet a mission statement is not a slogan. It is a precise statement of purpose. Words should be chosen for their meaning rather than beauty, for clarity over cleverness. The best mission statements are plain speech with no technical jargon and no adornments. Like the mission statement of the International Red Cross -"To serve the most vulnerable'' -- they come right out and say something. In their brevity and simplicity is power.

The work plan to develop a mission statement calls for a writing group to develop a draft statement and recommend it for the board chairman's endorsement, who then proposes the mission statement for approval by the board. Some groups are able to develop a revised mission very quickly, while others conduct the work over a period of weeks or even months. If the mission is being revisited outside a full self-assessment process, the writing group must, at bare minimum, be able to identify the organization or initiative's primary customer and what the goals and results should be. If understanding or agreement is insufficient on these key points, deeper involvement in the self-assessment process is necessary before an effective mission statement can be developed. If the mission is being revisited within a full self-assessment process, Steps 2 to 8 in the following plan may be condensed.

Work plan for developing a mission statement


步骤 内容 谁负责
1. 成立一个『使命写作』小组(或评估小组);挑选一个协调者/写作者。Establish a mission-writing group (may be the Assessment Team). Chief executive
2. 第一次会议:制定一个有效的使命标准;收集意见和建议;At a first meeting of the writing group: • Adopt criteria for an effective mission statement. • Gather ideas and suggestions for first drafts. Chief executive, facilitator
3. 起草一个或者多个草稿Develop one or more draft statements. Writer
4. 第二次会议,根据最初的标准来判断草稿,并提供修改建议 In a second group meeting, judge initial drafts against criteria and suggest revisions or new options. Writing group, facilitator
5. 第二稿Develop second drafts. Writer
6. 从小组外部收集反馈 Gain feedback from outside the writing group. Chief executive, others as assigned
7. 整理反馈,并将第二次草稿发给组员Summarize feedback and distribute second drafts and summary to the writing group. Chief executive, writer
8. 第三次会议;提交一个初稿供审议等。In a third group meeting: • Make recommendations for final revisions and propose a draft mission statement for board approval; or • Sum up the status of the process and determine next steps. Writing group, facilitator
9. Give preliminary endorsement to the proposed mission statement. Board chairman
10. Present the proposed mission statement for board approval. Board chairman


Step 1: Establish a mission-writing group

The task of the mission-writing group is to agree on a draft mission statement to be presented to the governance body for approval. The Assessment Team doubles as the writing group, or a special team may be convened. Members should include the chief executive, the board chairman or another representative of the board, a writer, and a manageable number of additional members who represent different parts of the organization and who are keen to take on the task. Having a facilitator is helpful. It can be particularly beneficial if this individual has facilitated other parts of the organization's self-assessment process.

Step 2: Adopt criteria for an effective mission statement; gather ideas and suggestions for first drafts

The "too many cooks spoil the broth" syndrome that besets so many writing groups is substantially avoided by agreeing on a recipe in advance. Prior to a first meeting, writing group members should review Peter Drucker's discussion on mission in the Participant Workbook and Worksheet 4, which contain criteria for an effective mission statement. At a first meeting, the writing group should post these criteria on a flip chart or chalkboard, review them, consider amendments, and adopt the criteria they will use to judge the effectiveness of the mission they are about to develop.

The suggested criteria for an effective mission statement are that it:

  • Is short and sharply focused 简短而聚焦
  • Is clear and easily understood 清晰易懂
  • Defines why we do what we do; why the organization exists 定义了我们为什么要做、做什么,为什么我们的机构要存在
  • Does not prescribe means 不易失效
  • Is sufficiently broad 能被广泛传播
  • Provides direction for doing the right things 为做正确的事提供方向
  • Addresses our opportunities 表达了我们的机会
  • Matches our competence 与我们的竞争力相匹配
  • Inspires our commitment 激发我们的承诺
  • Says what, in the end, we want to be remembered for 最终,我们想被怎样记住

Following the adoption of criteria, the group moves on to ideas and suggestions for the mission statement. This exercise begins with reviewing the suggestions from a self-assessment retreat or second group discussion, then adding to them. If the mission is being revisited outside a full self-assessment process, the group moves directly to generating new ideas and suggestions. What is important at this point is to develop the widest possible set of options without being overly critical of any. The facilitator records the groups' responses. Idea-generating techniques include:

  • Open brainstorming: any thought or idea is welcome.
  • Each group member finishes the sentence, "The mission should be. ..."
  • Small teams "compete" in a very short time span to draft and nominate the "best" new mission statement.
  • Go around the group two or three times asking for the one word that must be in the mission statement.
  • Each person quickly draws a picture of the mission, then "shows and tells."

To conclude the exercise, the group:

  • Posts and reviews all ideas and suggestions. The facilitator draws a circle around the words or phrases that appear most often.
  • Discusses key ideas or themes that must be captured in the new mission statement.
  • Discusses key ideas or themes that must not be part of the new mission statement.

Step 3: Develop one or more draft statements.

Following the meeting, the writer-either alone or with a small subgroup-develops drafts of at least two possible new mission statements that are distributed before the next meeting.

Step 4: Judge initial drafts against criteria and suggest revisions or new options

The second meeting of the writing group should begin with a discussion of the protocols (outlined next) that will be followed to judge the drafts and make suggestions. People should also be encouraged to "listen between the lines." This step in the process is highly structured, but on more than one occasion, someone in a group offers a comment or phrase that turns out to be the perfect nugget on which to build the new mission statement. If the group has a "Eureka! moment," go with it.

To judge drafts and make suggestions:

  1. The group reviews the criteria for an effective mission statement.
  2. The first draft statement is posted on a flip chart or writing board at the front of the group.
  3. Group members individually rate the draft as meets, meets somewhat, doesnrt meet for each criterion.
  4. The facilitator polls and records the group's response for each criterion to determine the overall strengths and weaknesses of the draft.
  5. The group first discusses the merits of the draft and then makes specific suggestions for how it might be improved.Note: The group is not engaging in collective editing or rewriting. All suggestions -even if they contradict one another-are encouraged and recorded.
  6. The second draft statement is posted and steps C-E are repeated.
  7. The group compares and contrasts its reactions to the two drafts.
  8. The facilitator instructs each group member to be ready to write, then gives the group two minutes to individually write their recommended mission statement at this point. At the end of the writing time, members read their statement aloud, then all are collected and given to the writer.
  9. The meeting concludes with discussion to determine:
  10. Whether the group believes it already has developed an effective statement to put forward.
  11. Whether the writer should return a single modified draft or two options. o What the writer should most keep in mind when developing the next draft(s).
  12. Who outside the group might be asked for feedback on the emerging statement or next draft(s).
  13. Setting the group's next meeting.

Step 5: Develop second drafts

Following the meeting, the writer or small subgroup develops a second draft of one or more possible new mission statements.

Step 6: Gain feedback from outside the writing group

This step puts the emerging statement or draft(s) to the test for their resonance with other members of the organization. The board chairman and chief executive decide who outside the writing group will be asked to give feedback. In some settings, organizationwide input is invited. In others, a smaller group of respondents is selected.

There may also be value in gaining feedback from a few key informants outside the organization. The chief executive oversees the process of gaining feedback. If the board chairman is not already a member of the writing group, his or her feedback at this point is essential. Each individual or group being contacted for their response is:

  1. Shown the criteria for an effective mission statement.
  2. Asked for a rating of each draft, based on the criteria (meets, meets somewhat, doesn't meet).
  3. Asked for comments on the merits and weaknesses of the draft(s).
  4. Asked for ideas or recommendations for improvement.

Step 7: Summarize feedback and distribute second drafts and summary to writing group

Step 8: Propose a draft mission statement or determine next steps

With some groups, the process for developing a mission statement flows with ease to a unanimous and enthusiastic conclusion. With most, the process proves demanding but worthwhile when a strong statement emerges. A small number of groups come to feel they have been given the riddle of the Sphinx.

Mission-writing groups may choose to propose more than one statement for the board chairman or full board to consider, may ask for a board discussion to gain input and direction, or may simply go into another round of drafts and keep at it until the issue is resolved. If a group truly gets stuck, it may be helpful to let the task lie for a time and come back to it or take the challenge to a specialist outside the organization and gain a completely fresh perspective. As Peter Drucker reminds us, "What counts is not the beauty of the mission statement. What counts is your performance." It may, in the end, be most preferable to suggest an interim statement and live with it for a time before making a final decision.

At a third meeting, the writing group:

  1. Reviews the emerging statement or second draft(s).

  2. Hears and discusses a summary of feedback from outside the writing group.

  3. Again rates the draft(s) against criteria and cites merits and weaknesses.

  4. Attempts group editing or rewriting if there is agreement that they are "close and it's worth a try."

  5. Determines if they have a strong enough draft to propose for approval.

If so, the group makes final suggestions for fine-tuning and approves its proposed mission statement.

If not, the group sums up the status of the process and recommends next steps.

Step 9: Gain preliminary endorsement of the proposed mission statement

If the mission is being revisited as part of a comprehensive organizational self-assessment process, preliminary endorsement by the board chairman is necessary before the Assessment Team confirms goals for the plan. The board chairman's preliminary endorsement is always necessary before he or she presents a proposed mission statement to the full board for approval.

Step 10: Present the proposed mission statement for board approval

The board chairman presents the proposed mission statement as part of the organization's plan or as a separate item of business. The approval of the mission is one of the board's most important strategic planning responsibilities. If the board rejects a proposed mission, consideration of goals is postponed until a mission is approved.

传播工具箱(Communication Toolkit)

Creating a Communications Plan

Creating an annual strategic plan for communications helps raise awareness, show your organization’s impact , and attract funders .

How to do it!

Ask yourself the following five questions:

  1. What organizational goals are you trying to achieve this year? In the long run?
  2. Who is your target audience(s)?
  3. What messages do you want to convey to your audiences?
  4. What communications tools should you leverage to best reach key audiences: blogging, traditional or social media, e -newsletters or videos?
  5. How can we measure the results? Did your communications effort reach the target audience? Did you place a blog? How many times was your post shared on Facebook or retweeted on Twitter?

Answer these questions as a team and create a tactical communications plan. If you don’t have a dedicated staff person, identify a point person for communications.

Be sure to create a work plan to guide you on a weekly basis on how to execute and evaluate your communications plan.


Use Microsoft Word or Google Docs to create your plan and Microsoft Excel or an other spreadsheet software to track your progress and evaluate your work.


  • The Foundation Center: Developing a Communications Strategy
  • Smart Chart 3.0 an online tool to help you make and assess strategic communications decisions.
  • Use this template to make your Communications Plan

Sample: Communication Plan


Give an overview of your communication plan for the year.


What are your communications goals for the year?

  • objective 1
  • objective 2

Target Audience

who are your organization's target audiences?


Describe your communications tactics to reach your key audiences and maximize the impact of your communications effort.

  1. Strengthen the media and communications capacity of your organization.
  2. Strategically employ a wide array of communications tools, including media placements and social media efforts to promote your organization’s work.
  3. Creation of an editorial calendar for blogs and other opinion pieces on key issues
  4. Create or update media products (press kits, fact sheets, briefs) on your organization.
  5. Maintain a targeted press list of reporters and media outlets.
  6. Identify,craft and distribute press releases and pitches on newsworthy story ideas to key media outlets and news blogs for placements.
  7. Monitor coverage in major media on Africa and write opinion piece or Letter to the Editor on critical issues related to Africa and your organization for major newspapers and news sites, such New York Times, Washington Post, CNN.com, Huffington Post, AllAfrica.com, among other media outlets.
  8. Set up one-on-one informational interviews with key reporters and editors covering Africa.
  9. Ongoing evaluation of results and outcomes from media and communications efforts.
  10. Lead media outreach efforts to highlight your oganization‘s influence and contributions at events.
  11. To raise the visibility of your organization, its mission and partners at events.
  12. To highlight the impactful efforts of your organization.
  13. To promote your organization’s ongoing efforts to weigh in on development and philanthropic initiatives at events.
  14. Creation of an awareness campaign
  15. Develop a concept for an awareness campaign. o Create a work plan for all aspects of the campaign.
  16. Develop a social media effort to encourage engagement on the campaign for Facebook page and Twitter.


How will you measure the effectiveness of your annual communications plan?

Developing Effective Messaging

You've created a strategic communication plan, now it's time to begin crafting clear and concise messages.

Why is effective messaging important?

  • Helps you communicate better with partners and donors.
  • Conveys your organizational goals and objectives.

How to do it?

These questions will help guide you in developing your messaging:

  • What do you want your audience to understand about your organization or issue? When people talk about your organization, what do you want them to say?
  • What do you want your target audience to know about your organization?
  • What actions do you want your audience to take? Be specific.


5 steps to developing your strategic message

Even if strategic message is easy to formulate, conveying it in an easy-to-understand fashion and implementing it are huge obstacles.

Rebecca K. Leet, president of Rebecca Leet and Associates, maintains that the strategy developed by the Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP) offers a primer for developing powerful messages. That strategy followed five steps, which are as follows:

  • Decide what action you want to prompt. The organization decided first what action it wanted to bring about through the articulation of its message. In the case of the CSSP, the goal was to change the way America works to prevent child abuse and neglect.
  • Determine who can make that action happen. What is the target audience? Who are the players who can bring about a radical change?
  • Determine why those audiences would take the action. This challenging decision involved the realization that the target audience wanted a doable solution and not a great-sounding idea that could be implemented with minimal cost to it and that it wanted better outcomes and making prevention mainstream.
  • Confirm that there will be mutuality of satisfaction. Come up with something practical and doable with minimum monetary investment and small but significant changes in professional practice.
  • Write the message. The message had to be brief and yet connect to audience desires using audience language rather than organization tone.

Samples: Message Development

Message Development Planning Document


This messaging document aims to help guide the development of a core message and key messaging points for your organization.

Target Audiences

  • Funders: international foundations, government and individual donors
  • Beneficiaries
  • General Public

About Us: Core Message

  • message one
  • message two maybe

Core Message Options:

  1. option one
  2. option two

Key Supporting Messaging Points


Measuring the Impact of Your Messaging What are the measurable goals to assess whether your messaging is resonating with key audiences?

Areas of Messaging Opportunity

Communications Tool Existing Content Suggested Enhancements Notes:
Pitch Materials
Social Media
Media Relations

Channels for Communication

Your organizations messages should be incorporated in your website, social media, blogs, publications, speeches, videos and other channels of communications.


Your website builds credibility and reinforces your brand identity.

Your website should be visually appealing and feature strong messaging that will resonate with your target audience.

A dedicated staff person should be responsible for regularly updating your website with your organization's latest news and events.

Here's how to do it:

  • Clearly state your organization's mission on the homepage.
  • Create a current news section to highlight the latest news and developments.
  • Feature compelling images and video to illustrate the impact of your organization.
  • Highlight social media icons on the website. Displaying the icons is a great way to encourage visitors to follow you on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other sites.


E-newsletters are a cost effective way to keep supporters updated and highlight your success. They go right into your subscriber's inbox and can help generate buzz and fundraising opportunities.

Here's how to do it:

  • Create an editorial calendar featuring your news items. Distribute e-newsletters on a monthly or quarterly basis.
  • Feature relevant information: highlight your success using blogs, photos and infographics.


Blogs are an effective communications tool to promote your organization's news and information. Blogs can help add new content to your website and social media and shape what your supporters read. It's also a great way to create your own press and PR around your organization.

Again, use your editorial calendar to create a regular blog schedule.

Here's how to do it:

  • Regularly write blogs on breaking news and organizational updates.
  • Feature success stories of your work.
  • Highlight resources and empowering How-To tips that would be of interest to your supporters.
  • Invite guest bloggers such as a local expert, donors or thought leaders to contribute to your blog.
  • Interview your beneficiaries about how your organization has made an impact on their lives and community.
  • Create a photo slide show to showcase your mission and work.


Get start with your social network service , use Weibo/Twitter/Facebook/Wechat public account

Documents Every Organization Needs

Press Release

Create a press release before an event or a new project is unveiled to increase press coverage. Pitch your story to print, broadcast and online media before your event. It is important to plan your media outreach:

  • Make sure your pitch is newsworthy.
  • Create a list of media outlets to reach out to.
  • Based on the audience of the media outlet create a tailored pitch with your press release. Contact the appropriate reporter or producer with a pitch email about your story idea.
  • Reach out to media contacts by phone and email if you are having trouble reaching them and remember to stay in touch with your media contacts for future stories.
  • It's OK to be persistent.

One-Pagers (报告或者介绍的精简版)

A one-pager - also referred to as a fact sheet -- provides a concise overview of your organization. It introduces your organization and enables partners, donors and potential contacts to better understand who you are. The one-pager is a tangible resource to bring to meetings and conferences or attach to an email to convey your mission.

Remember to assign a communications staffer or another point person to create the one-pager and update it at least once a year as your organization grows.

What information should your one-pager include?

  • Background information on your organization.
  • Information about your thematic and regional area of focus.
  • Highlight outputs, outcomes and impact of programming and number of people served.
  • Feature a case study, success story or unique program or project.
  • Use infographics and visually appealing ways to display your message.

Pitch Decks (Slide Decks) 介绍项目的PPT

A pitch deck is a slide presentation that highlights your organization's programs or new projects to potential donors. A well- designed pitch deck should inspire potential donors and investors to want to learn more about and invest in your organization.

  • Slides should be visually appealing with lots of pictures and graphics.
  • Explain your organization, the "problem" you are addressing, project activities, and what the solution and outcome will be.
  • Don't forget to include your business model, funding needs, management team, key metrics and your timeline.

Annual Reports

Annual reports are a great way to tell your story by showcasing your organization's accomplishments and financial statements to donors, potential donors and partners. It can also be a useful marketing piece to accompany your info packet, grant applications and media kits.

  • Focus on your accomplishments for the year.
  • Use graphics, pictures, statistics and words to show your accomplishments.
  • Include information on your financials.
  • Consider recognizing your top donors with a donor list.
  • After you marvel donors with your accomplishments, include action steps that they can take to help your organization reach its goals for the next year.

Additional Resources

  • Grant Reporting
  • Donor Relations
  • Budgets
  • Fundraising Plans

Measuring the Results

Throughout your communications effort, you should set measurable benchmarks to evaluate whether you are achieving your goals.

Evaluating your communications strategies and tactics will improve the effectiveness of your communications and ensure that your organization is connecting with your key audiences and that your messages are resonating with them.

How to do it?

  • List three achievable goals to assess whether your communications effort made an impact.
  • Did you gain a set number of media placements?
  • Did you achieve a high number of "likes" on your blog?
  • Did your communications effort help you reach your fundraising goal?
  • Did your supporter take action on an awareness campaign?


  • Review your communications plan and prioritize the specific communications objectives where your organization would like to measure the result. For each communications objective, conduct the S.M.A.R.T. test.
  • Specific - What is the specific communications objective, strategy or tactic that your organization would like to evaluate?
  • Measurable - What are your key performance indicators?
  • Assignable - Who will implement the communications objective? Do we have staff to consistently carry out the communications effort?
  • Realistic - What results can realistically be achieved ?