UNICEF 儿童服务参考

本页内容得益于中国资助者圆桌论坛发布的UNICEF儿童早期发展项目指南,转载请注明出处。

UNICEF 于2017年发布《儿童早期发展项目指南》英文版 ,其目的在于:

  • Provides a framework for articulating a vision, corresponding goals and indicators linked to the commitments made for ECD (early child development) within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Strategic Plan (SP) (2018-2021);
  • Identifies evidence-based multi-sectoral intervention packages, programmatic delivery platforms, contributions to sector goals, implementation strategies and organizational arrangements needed to advance the ECD agenda according to the needs and the situation at regional and country levels.

从 UNICEF 的儿童早期发展项目指南中,可以看到其框架的逻辑,以及一些项目领域的参考。

ECD framework

UNICEF goals (基金会目标)

All young children, from conception up to the age of school entry, achieve their developmental potential in equitable inclusive care environments, programme and policies, including in humanitarian setting

Objectives (项目目标)

Children up to the age of school entry receive essential services

Children up to the age of school entry, including children with disabilities and children in fragile contexts, have equitable access to quality child care, health, nutrition, protection and early learning services to address their developmental needs

Parents and caregivers practice nurturing care

Parents engaged in nurturing care and positive parenting and stimulating and learning activities

Multisectoral intervention packages (跨部门干预)

  • First 1,000 Days
  • Early Learning & Protection
  • Caring for the Caregiver: Multi-generational Nurturing Care
  • Family Support & Strengthening

Service delivery platforms (服务实施平台)

Health & nutrition

  • Health centres/clinics

  • Nutrition counselling centres

  • Hospitals

Education

  • Preschools
  • Schools

Community

  • Child care centers (health, child protection and education)
  • Work place

Protection

  • Social protection platforms
  • Home visiting
  • Social welfare system

Implementing strategies (实施策略)

  • Cross-sectoral & multi-sectoral programming
  • Policy & systems strengthening
  • Behavior change & community engagement
  • Communication
  • Advocacy
  • Data & evidence
  • Public finance for children

M&E measurement, learning and accountability

该部分作为底层建设

Intervention Package

First 1,000 Days

Definition

  • Addresses the first 1,000 days of a child’s life.
  • Focuses on pregnant mother, new born infant and toddler.
  • Is primarily delivered through the health system by community health workers, doctors, nurses, nutrition counsellors and other professionals.
  • Its core component is ‘Care for Child Development – CCD’ because it integrates the component of nurturing care, the essential element to promote child development – providing parents and key caregivers with skills and information on early stimulation, positive interactions, and emotional attachment. The CCD package was endorsed by UNICEF and WHO.

Main interventions include

  • Care for Child Development (CCD)

  • Antenatal care

  • Immunisation and well-baby visits.

  • Newborn care and for premature babies, Kangaroo mother care.

  • Early initiation and promotion of breastfeeding and responsive feeding.

  • WASH and hygiene interventions e.g., hand-washing.

  • Complementary and responsive feeding.

  • Prevention of Gender-Based Violence (GBV).

  • Skilled birth attendants.

  • Birth registration.

Sector engagement

  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • HIV/AIDS
  • WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene sector)
  • Child protection
  • Gender

Caring for the Caregiver: Multi-generational Nurturing Care

Definition

  • Is not linked to a specific child age.
  • Emphasises care and protection of the mother’s and father’s own mental health and well-being while enhancing their capacity to provide nurturing care to their child.
  • Can be delivered through community-based child care and/or social protection mechanisms.
  • Several of the interventions are similar to the earlier packages. The key differences are this package focuses on the adult, it is not child-age specific, and it is relevant for humanitarian crises

Main interventions include

  • Peer-to-peer support.
  • Social services.
  • prevention and management of mental health and well-being.
  • Care for child development and positive discipline.
  • Immunization and prevention of childhood illness.
  • Nutrition counselling.
  • Hygiene practices, including hand washing and toilet training.

Sector engagement

  • Child protection
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Education
  • Gender
  • C4D (Communication for Development)
  • WASH

Early Learning and Protection

Definition

  • Addresses the second 1,000 days of a child’s life.
  • Focuses on delivering services to the child.
  • Is primarily delivered through the education system by careworkers, preschool and pre-primary teachers.
  • Supports teachers and careworkers to build the skills to create safe, stimulating and nurturing learning environments; helps parents to support their young children’s growth, development and learning.

Main interventions include

  • Quality child care, preschool and/or pre-primary.
  • Management of childhood illness; immunisation, deworming, prevention.
  • Hygiene practices, including toilet training.
  • Education to teachers on early health, growth and development; support to parents on stimulation and positive parenting

Sector engagement

  • Education
  • Nutrition
  • Child protection
  • C4D
  • Gender
  • WASH
  • Health

Family Support and Strengthening

Definition

  • Is not linked to a specific child age.
  • Is meant to support and strengthen the entire family as a unit.
  • Can be delivered through community-based child care and/or social protection mechanisms.
  • Consists of providing essential services, skills building and social supports. These combined interventions increase the likelihood that families, especially the most vulnerable, are better able to provide nurturing care for their children.

Main interventions include

  • Quality community-based child care (non-formal, formal and private).
  • Access to basic health and nutrition services.
  • Positive and responsive parenting skills-building.
  • Family-friendly policies – parental leave, sick child leave, breastfeeding breaks.
  • Social protection and safety networks including cash transfer.

Sector engagement

  • Social protection
  • Child protection
  • Education
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • WASH
  • Gender
  • C4D

UNICEF 儿童服务参考

健康

青少年女性

  • 筛查并管理传染和非传染性疾病
  • 检查并管理孕期风险
  • 青少年健康服务
  • 预防并管理精神健康
  • 健康素养
  • 性及生殖健康,包括早孕预防
  • 青少年期疫苗接种,如宫颈癌疫苗等

孕前、孕期、生产

  • 孕前照顾
  • 有技术的接生人员
  • 产前和生产照顾
  • 预防和管理母婴传播HIV
  • 预防和治疗精神疾病
  • 生育间隔
  • 健康卫生实践
  • 回应性照料技能培训(Responsive care-giving skills)

产后、新生儿

  • 管理母亲和新生儿并发症
  • 获得健康照料
  • 新生儿照料(小婴儿特殊照顾/袋鼠妈妈养育)
  • 预防和管理精神健康
  • 健康卫生实践
  • 回应性照料技能培训

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 疫苗接种
  • 预防和管理儿童疾病
  • 对发育迟缓和残障儿童进行筛查
  • 驱虫
  • 获得健康照顾
  • 预防管理精神健康
  • 健康卫生实践(包括如厕训练)
  • 回应性照料技能培训

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 疫苗接种
  • 预防和管理儿童疾病
  • 对发育迟缓和残障儿童进行筛查
  • 驱虫
  • 获得健康照顾
  • 预防管理精神健康
  • 健康卫生实践(包括如厕训练)
  • 回应性照料技能培训

营养

青少年女性

  • 间断性的铁和叶酸补充
  • 了解青少年健康饮食并为成为父母做准备

孕前、孕期、生产

  • 孕妇补充铁、叶酸或多种微量元素
  • 碘盐
  • 了解孕期营养
  • 提倡母乳喂养

产后、新生儿

  • 母乳喂养咨询和母亲支持
  • 对6个月婴儿进行早期启蒙并提倡母乳喂养和回应性照料

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 管理重度或中度急性营养不良
  • 补充微量元素
  • 持续母乳喂养,辅食添加和回应性喂养

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 管理重度或中度急性营养不良
  • 补充和添加微量元素
  • 将营养整合进学前或早期学习

教育

青少年女性

  • 小学和中学
  • 为辍学或从未获得正规教育的青少年提供其它学习机会
  • 学习个人赋权和就业技能并积极参与公民事务

孕前、孕期、生产

  • 关于早期刺激、成长和发展的教育
  • 支持父母进行早期刺激和照顾

产后、新生儿

  • 关于早期刺激、成长和发展的教育
  • 支持父母进行早期刺激和照顾

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 关于早期刺激、成长和发展的教育(父母)
  • 支持父母进行早期刺激和照顾
  • 获得优质儿童早期照顾、学习和发展项目(儿童)

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 关于早期刺激、成长和发展的教育(父母)
  • 支持父母进行早期刺激和照顾•获得优质儿童早期照顾、学习和发展项目(儿童)
  • 获得优质学前社区项目(儿童)

儿童保护

青少年女性

  • 回应紧急和非紧急暴力的(包括基于性别的)健康、公平和社会福利服务
  • 预防伤害、暴力和不良行为
  • 积极交流的社会技能
  • 家长教育项目(保护青少年儿童)

孕前、孕期、生产

  • 出生登记
  • 回应紧急和非紧急暴力的(包括基于性别的)健康、公平和社会福利服务
  • 提供积极教养知识培训和支持(家长教育项目)
  • 预防儿童被打骂、虐待和忽视(健康,社会福利服务和替代照顾)

产后、新生儿

  • 回应紧急和非紧急暴力的(包括基于性别的)健康、公平和社会福利服务
  • 提供积极教养知识培训和支持(家长教育项目)
  • 预防儿童被打骂、虐待和忽视(健康,社会福利服务和替代照顾)

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 回应紧急和非紧急暴力的(包括基于性别的)健康、公平和社会福利服务
  • 提供积极教养的知识培训和支持(家长教育项目,并减少严厉管教
  • 预防儿童被打骂、虐待和忽视(健康,社会福利服务和替代照顾)

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 促进和平和解决冲突
  • 回应紧急和非紧急暴力的(包括基于性别的)健康、公平和社会福利服务
  • 提供积极教养知识培训和支持(家长教育项目)并减少严厉管教
  • 预防儿童被打骂、虐待和忽视(健康,社会福利服务和替代照顾)

HIV/AIDS

青少年女性

  • 意识提升
  • 社区性教育
  • 青少年性生殖健康服务
  • HIV咨询、检测和治疗
  • 性生殖健康服务(减少风险和脆弱性)
  • 增加收入、经济赋权

孕前、孕期、生产

  • HIV咨询和检测整合进产前护理服务
  • 抗病毒治疗
  • 减少社会和经济障碍、暴力和歧视
  • 提升社区能力和行动

产后、新生儿

  • 早期婴儿诊断
  • 儿科治疗
  • 获得可负担的优质儿童照顾
  • 获得社会转介和服务
  • 通过基于社区的个人照顾服务加强HIV服务计划的利用

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 儿科检测和治疗
  • 教养技能
  • 保护、关爱和支持服务
  • 社会转介
  • 链接至早期学习或基于社区的个人照顾服务项目赋能

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 儿科检测和治疗
  • 家庭强化
  • 照料者培训和支持
  • 社区照顾和支持服务
  • 现金补贴、费用报销、增加收入和社会保护

社会接纳

青少年女性

  • 增加弱势青少年获得社会保护的机会

孕前、孕期、生产

  • 社会转介促进服务获得、成本抵消和保护家庭免受贫困
  • 减少风险和脆弱性
  • 加强家庭支持

产后、新生儿

  • 社会转介促进服务获得、成本抵消和保护家庭免受贫困
  • 减少风险和脆弱性
  • 加强家庭支持

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 社会转介促进服务获得、成本抵消和保护家庭免受贫困
  • 减少风险和脆弱性
  • 加强家庭支持

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 社会转介促进服务获得、成本抵消和保护家庭免受贫困
  • 减少风险和脆弱性
  • 加强家庭支持

WASH

青少年女性

  • 提倡卫生
  • 增加在学校获得WASH服务的机会
  • 经期管理
  • 在家附近获得WASH服务
  • 推广厕所排便(open defecation free)

孕前、孕期、生产

  • 经期管理
  • WASH产妇和新生儿评估
  • 倡导在健康中心提供WASH服务
  • 在家附近获得WASH服务
  • 推广厕所排便(open defecation free)

产后、新生儿

  • 经期管理
  • WASH产妇和新生儿评估
  • 倡导在健康中心提供WASH服务
  • 在家附近获得WASH服务
  • 推广厕所排便(open defecation free)

3岁以下婴儿期

  • 用肥皂洗手
  • 厕所排便教育和儿童粪便管理
  • 在家附近获得WASH服务
  • 学前或儿童友好中心的WASH服务
  • 在家附近获得水和卫生

3-6岁幼儿期

  • 提倡卫生
  • 用肥皂洗手
  • 厕所排便教育和儿童粪便管理
  • 在家附近获得WASH服务
  • 学前或儿童友好中心的WASH服务